Ketogenic diet

the essence of a ketogenic diet for weight loss

Lack of hunger pangs, clear mind and rapid weight loss are all benefits of a ketogenic diet. Find out what types of keto diets are and choose the one that suits you!

The ketogenic diet is no longer a novelty in the world of diet and weight loss, but it is still the most controversial method. And all because his supporters are convinced: on fried chicken legs and juicy chops you can not only lose weight, but also never gain weight. Doctors warn: the keto diet is difficult, dangerous, not fully understood, and is also fraught with many side effects.

Fat diet came to us from the world of medicine, where it has been used for a very long time to alleviate epileptic seizures in children. It is one of the variants of low carb diet programs. However, the main difference between the ketogenic system and the common one is that fats are the main nutrient in his diet.

How it works

In the usual proper diet, the most favorable ratio of nutrients (BZHU) is 1: 1: 4, ie carbohydrates are the basis of the diet. They are the main source of energy (calories) and are necessary for the nervous system as a source of glucose. However, numerous studies confirm that this is not entirely true. Swedish scientists have shown that as a result of the increase in fat and protein, as well as the rejection of saccharides after the depletion of one's own glycogen stores, the body switches to another "regime". Normal metabolism is restored and glucids cease to be the main source of energy. The liver produces a special form of acetone called ketones (ketone bodies), which travel through the bloodstream and affect the oxidation of fatty acids. As a result, our body goes into a state of ketosis and does not extract energy from carbohydrate chains, but from fat processing products, first by depleting subcutaneous fat and then using fat from food. Experiments by scientists have confirmed that ketones are more physiological fuel for the brain, while sugars, on the contrary, are cheap and fast energy, which is the cause of degenerative brain diseases in the future.

After irresistible research results, professional athletes and bodybuilders became interested in this method. Ket food began to gain popularity and from a diet it turned into a lifestyle that promises fast weight loss, strengthening and increasing muscle mass, the absence of constant hunger and, as a result, a different life.

However, despite its effectiveness, doctors warn: a ketogenic diet is associated with the calculation of nutritional norms, so it is prescribed and monitored by a nutritionist. It is important to properly initiate, maintain, and control ketosis. If you compile the program from the menu yourself, it means that you are putting your health at great risk!

Main views

Professional athletes distinguish three main types of ketogenic diet:

Standard (SKD - standard ketogenic diet)

types of ketogenic diet for weight loss

This is a basic linear program with moderate to high protein intake, high fat intake and low saccharide intake. It is characterized by a constant supply of ketogenic nutrients without a period of glucid replenishment. SKD is great for people with low activity (sedentary lifestyle, irregular exercise).

How to calculate nutrient balance? Take for example a standard ketogenic diet for a 75 kg person with an exercise intensity of 2-3 times a week.

  • First, let's calculate the daily calorie intake (KRday). For our example, it will be around 2000 kcal / day.
  • The required number of proteins (Bsut) is 2 grams per 1 kg of weight, ie, for our example, Bsut = 2 * 75 = 150 grams / day.
  • The daily amount of carbohydrates (Usut) is 0, 2-0, 4 grams. per 1 kg of weight, ie. 15-30 grams per day (for the calculation we will take the norm of 30 grams).
  • Let's calculate how many calories in the daily diet come from protein and glycides. Each of these nutrients is known to contain 4 calories per gram. Therefore, in our calculation this value (150 + 30) * 4 = 720 kcal.
  • As you can see, in our example a person needs to get 1280 kcal (2000-720) from fat. And since 1 gram of fat contains 9 kcal, then the daily amount of fat (F / day) = 1280/9 = 142 grams.

As a result of the calculation, we found that for this situation, the diet should consist of 150 grams of protein, 30 grams of carbohydrates and 142 grams of fat, evenly distributed between meals.

Cyclic (CKD - ​​cyclic ketogenic diet)

An option for experienced bodybuilders who feel good in their body and understand proper nutrition, calories and diet rules. CKD is suitable for athletes who train every day and report a decrease in training efficiency, in relation to the basic and target system. The goal of this method is to determine the exact period between the day of loading carbohydrates (supplementation) and calculate the amount of glucid that will allow you to work as intensively as possible on your body.

what foods you can eat on a ketogenic diet

Bodybuilders recommend gradually introducing recommendations, starting once a week, and monitoring your well-being by adjusting the time interval between loads based on individual needs. Write down how many carbs you consumed per day and how you generally feel.

The main rule of the loading day: decrease the Z / day indicator, while B / day should remain unchanged (or increased). The unit per day depends on individual insulin sensitivity and is 2-3 g per 1 kg with low, 4-5 g per 1 kg at normal and 6-7 g per 1 kg at high sensitivity.

Let’s calculate the caloric intake of a CDC with normal insulin sensitivity for our example.

  • B / day = 2 * 75 = 150 grams / day.
  • Y / day = 450 to 525 grams / day.
  • The daily content of calories in proteins and sugars on the day of carbohydrate loading is (150 + 450) * 4 = 2400 kcal.
  • As in the previous calculation, we calculate the remaining calories, divide the number obtained by 9 and get how many grams of fat should be included in the diet on carbohydrate days.

So, the calculations showed that during 6 days the CKD menu will be built as in CKD, and one day (carbohydrates) will contain calories 2500 kcal (150 g protein, 300 g carbohydrates and 78 g fat)

TKD-targeted ketogenic diet

Suitable for long-term athletes whose performance declines drastically after a long period without glycides and who can benefit from a low carbohydrate intake. It is characterized by short-term "injection" of saccharides during the so-called "training window" (ie before and after training), which will increase endurance, but will not suppress the process of ketosis. The goal of a targeted ketogenic diet is to ensure a short-term increase in performance and endurance. In the absence of training, indicators for the SKD are taken.

Let's calculate Y / day before and after training for our example:

targeted ketogenic diet for weight loss
  • B / day = 2 * 75 = 150 grams / day.
  • The increase in Y / day depends on insulin resistance and is +0. 5 g per 1 kg with low sensitivity, +0. 75 g per 1 kg at normal and +1 g per 1 kg of weight with high sensitivity. It is recommended that these extra carbohydrates be divided into two equal portions and eaten before and after training.
  • As in previous calculations, subtract your daily calories from protein and carbohydrates from your total calories. The resulting delta will be calories that can be attributed to fat.

Attention!This calculation is not a rule, but just an example. The calculation of indicators for the basic menu should be based on individual characteristics, and fine-tuning the recommendations of the targeted and cyclic ketogenic diet is carried out exclusively by trial and error based on well-being, performance indicators, endurance, intensity and duration of the training period. If you are unsure of your abilities and experience, we recommend that you contact a nutritionist.


To achieve the desired weight loss results, follow these guidelines:

  1. Start fasting one day. Only water is allowed.
  2. Diet should contain: "correct" fats - 60%, protein - 30%, carbohydrates at least 10% of daily calorie intake.
  3. Mandatory intake of vitamins and minerals (calcium, vitamin D, folic acid).
  4. Drink as much as you can.
  5. Consuming foods from the allowed list.

Permitted and prohibited products

The onset and maintenance of ketosis is facilitated by:

  • high-fat fermented milk products (including cottage cheese);
  • lard, fatty meat, poultry with skin;
  • sausages (jamon, balik, boiled pork);
  • fish (preferably fatty) and seafood;
  • hard cheeses (try to choose cheeses with a minimum amount of carbohydrates);
  • avocado;
  • oils (butter, unrefined vegetable oils, coconut);
  • mushrooms;
  • fiber-rich vegetables;
  • bananas;
  • nuts, nut butters;
  • pumpkin seeds;
  • leafy salads.

Minimum allowed:

  • dark, bitter chocolate with maximum cocoa content and least sugar;
  • raw roots, vegetables, fruits that have not undergone heat treatment;
  • tea, coffee.

Prohibited Products:

  • carbonated drinks;
  • sugar, honey;
  • bakery products, bread;
  • cereals;
  • dried fruit;
  • skimmed milk, kefir, yoghurts;
  • margarine, spreads;
  • pasta;
  • starchy vegetables.


sample menu ketogenic diet

When compiling a weekly menu for a ketogenic diet, nutritionists recommend not focusing on the weight of the food, but making a menu based on its volume and calculating the BJU ratio.

Approximate ketogenic menu for the week, taking into account the recommendations.


  • Breakfast: scrambled eggs of 2 eggs; hard cheese; bacon; Cup of coffee.
  • Lunch: vegetable salad (leafy "Iceberg" + cucumber + celery), dressed in mayonnaise; fried chicken with skin; hard cheese.
  • Dinner: steak; cauliflower dinstan with mushrooms; coffee with cream.


  • Breakfast: cutlet; hard cheese; a cup of american with milk.
  • Lunch: salmon steak with cream sauce; steamed broccoli; lettuce salad with cheese and eggs, dressed in mayonnaise.
  • Dinner: pork chop; stewed cabbage; vegetable salad; tea.


  • Breakfast: 6-egg omelette with grated cheese (can be replaced with a protein shake); soy milk - 0, 5 l.
  • Lunch: smoked chest; fried zucchini with cheese.
  • Dinner: red fish with cream sauce; vegetable salad with mayonnaise; yogurt.


  • Breakfast: soft-boiled eggs - 4-5 pieces; any sauce - 2-3 tbsp. spoons; vegetable salad with cheese.
  • Lunch: mushrooms stewed in sour cream; spinach salad; Fried fish.
  • Dinner: meat steak; toast with honey; milk.


  • Breakfast: scrambled eggs (3-4 eggs); protein shake; hard cheese.
  • Lunch: scrambled eggs; fried chicken breast; hard cheese.
  • Dinner: salmon; unroasted almonds; salad.


  • Breakfast: salmon; grapefruit; salad.
  • Lunch: fish; vegetable stew; a mixture of walnuts.
  • Dinner: vegetable salad; a pair of sausages; sir.


  • Breakfast: eggs in a bag; cheese; vegetable salad.
  • Lunch: turkey; tomato salad with mayonnaise; sir.
  • Dinner: cottage cheese; grapefruit.

Be sure to follow a drinking regimen. Drink at least 1. 5 liters of water during the day.

Contraindications and side effects

A few days after starting a ketogenic diet, you may feel weak, lethargic, and depressed. Such a diet is not natural and is therefore especially dangerous for the growing organism. For adolescents, this food is categorically contraindicated. The following side effects may occur with a long-term or irregular ketogenic diet:

  • urolithiasis;
  • increased levels of bad cholesterol in the blood;
  • violation of peristalsis, functional state of the gastrointestinal tract (gastroesophageal reflux);
  • dehydration (because carbohydrates remove excess water);
  • slowed growth (in adolescents) due to protein deficiency;
  • vitamin deficiency;
  • mineral deficiency and, as a result, bone remineralization, osteoporosis;
  • inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis);
  • hormonal imbalance and menstrual cycle failure;
  • ketoacidosis.

Therefore, in order to avoid the development of pathological diseases and the worsening of existing ones, the diet is controlled by a specialist. When you lose weight, it is recommended to monitor the condition monthly, giving basic tests (blood, urine). Correction of the ketogenic diet or its cancellation is performed by a doctor based on the results of the examination.