Gout is a disease associated with impaired purine base metabolism. It leads to the deposition of uric acid salts in the joints and internal organs.
The main symptom is repeated attacks of acute arthritis, the formation of tofu (foci of compaction) on the legs, earlobes. Therapy in the active period is taking medication, with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs.
In order to accelerate the onset of remission and increase its duration, the patient is advised to adhere to certain principles of nutritional therapy. Properly chosen diet for gout can significantly improve the quality of life of the patient, reduce the number of disease attacks and reduce the risk of irreversible damage to the kidneys, central nervous system and musculoskeletal system.
The main goal of the diet in gout patients is to reduce the concentration of uric acid complexes in the blood plasma. The products that the patient consumes should be selected so that none of them contains more than 150 mg of purine per 100 g of weight. The patient is shown in Table 6.
Diet is most effective if the following principles are followed:
In addition to the above, it is necessary to follow the drinking regime. If there are no contraindications from the cardiovascular system, the patient should ingest about 2–2, 5 liters of fluid per day. Hydrocarbonate mineral waters are recommended. This promotes alkalization of the internal environment, reducing acidity.
In the phase of increased uric acid content in the blood and recurrence of pathology, dietary restrictions are most significant. The total daily amount of protein should be within 70 g, fat - 80 g, carbohydrates - 240 g. Calories in the diet are 1950-2000 kcal. Diet - four times a day, in the meantime you should drink fluids. Food temperature is normal, 55–60 ° C for hot dishes and 15 ° C for cold dishes. There is no need for targeted thermal savings. It is better if the consistency of the food is liquid or mushy.
The following foods are recommended:
In the presence of clinical manifestations of the disease, a person should not eat food that is acceptable in remission. It is necessary to refuse solid foods, pastries, meat and fish in any form, eggs, sweets, spices, oils. The requirement for animal proteins is met exclusively by dairy substances. Restrictions must be respected throughout the attack. On average, this takes 5-7 days. After the inflammatory process in the legs subsides, they gradually return to their normal diet. The transition takes 2-3 days.
Adherence to a diet for gout is necessary even if there are no living symptoms. The limitations in this case are not as severe as during exacerbations. However, they must be strictly adhered to. The basic requirement is the complete removal of meat from young animals, which contains the maximum amount of purines. Their concentration can reach 1000 mg per 100 g, which is many times higher than the allowed values. Also, extracts of meat, mackerel, sardines, livestock (liver, kidneys, brain), alcoholic beverages are categorically contraindicated.
Table number 6 means the consumption of 100 g of protein and fat, 450 g of carbohydrates per day. The total nutritional value of the daily menu is 3200 kcal. The amount of fluid is 1. 5–2 liters, if it does not contradict the treatment of other diseases that a person has.
The list of things a patient can do includes:
Purine base levels are lowest in foods such as grains, vegetables, honey, nuts and tomatoes. They can be eaten almost without restriction. Lard, beans, spinach, sorrel, mushrooms contain from 50 to 150 mg of the substance, which should be taken into account when compiling the menu.
Weight loss is recommended for patients with hypertensive and normosthenic physique. The calorie content of the diet must be reduced to 30 calories per kilogram of body weight. It is important that the weight loss takes place gradually, not more than one kilogram per month. This will ensure an acceptable level of ketone body formation. With a pronounced lack of nutritional value of products, their synthesis exceeds the permissible limits. A low-calorie diet excludes or significantly limits the consumption of bakery products.
Forbidden food: bread, pies, pizza, cakes, cheesecakes, pastries, sugar, sweets, sweet jam, cans and so on.
The table should be based on the components:
Weight management is not limited to low calorie meals. The patient should lead an active lifestyle, engage in physical education according to an individually developed program. Otherwise, dietary restrictions will be too strict, which will reduce a person’s attachment to therapy.
Patients with gout need to know exactly what is not and what is acceptable to eat. It is better if the person describes their diet for a relatively long time. Meals are usually developed in one week. The existing scheme can be used for several months, after which the set of dishes is completely changed or mixed every day. With increased uric acid levels, a weekly diet may look like this.
The diet is not complete. Any components from the list of what is allowed to the patient can be added to it.
Care should be taken that the total calorie content of meals and the content of purine bases in them do not exceed the established limits.
The dish can be steamed or baked. This approach allows you to ensure the optimal taste of the product, while maintaining its useful properties. Food processed in this way implies a gentle regimen for patients with a simultaneous diagnosis of gastroenterological profile. Cooking is allowed, however, if meat or fish is cooked this way, the soup will drain. The fact is that during processing, about 50% of purines contained in the muscle fibers of animals are transferred to it.
Proper nutrition is one of the main components of gout treatment on the legs. A person who does not adhere to the necessary conditions for assembling a diet is much more likely to suffer from a recurrence of the disease, even with adequately selected pharmacological therapy. Refusal of proper nutrition during exacerbations contributes to an increase in symptoms and prolongation of the time required for recovery. The patient received detailed information about what not and what to eat from his doctor. Therefore, at the first signs of pathology, you should seek help from a specialized specialist who will competently select the diet and prescribe treatment.